The Effects of Cooperative Learning on Students’ Mathematics Achievement, Mathematics Self-Efficacy and Mathematics Anxiety in High School Mathematics




Cooperative learning, Traditional direct instruction, Mathematics achievement, Mathematics anxiety, Mathematics self-efficacy


The purpose of this study is to identify the effects of cooperative learning on students’ mathematics achievement, mathematics self-efficacy and mathematics anxiety. This study employed a quasi-experimental design with pre-test and post-test. For this purpose, 112 students in 10th grade participated in our study to compare the cooperative learning method with traditional direct instruction method. These students has been selected through a random sampling technique, so that 56 students taught through cooperative learning, formed two experimental groups (girls group and boys group), and 56 students taught through traditional direct instruction, formed two control groups. Sample of the students were also equated on the basis of socio-economic status and achievement in the mathematics. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and ANCOVA to test hypotheses at 0.05 significance level. The results of this comparison show that cooperative learning has positive effects on students’ mathematics achievement, improves the mathematics self-efficacy of students and reduces students’ mathematics anxiety. In addition, the results of post-hoc pairwise comparisons show that cooperative learning has similar effects on mentioned variables for boy and girl students in experimental groups.


Download data is not yet available.


S. Alamolhodayi, Modern Strategies in Teaching Mathematics, Tehran, Nashr Publications (2002).

S. Araban, H. Zainalipour, R. H. R. Saadi, M. Javdan, K. Sezide and S. Sajjadi, Study of cooperative learning effects on self-efficacy and academic achievement in English lesson of high school students, Journal of Basic and Applied Scientific Research, 2(9) (2012), 8524-8526.

H. M. Ashcraft and A. J. Krause, Working memory, math performance, and math anxiety, Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 14(2) (2007), 243-248. doi:10.3758/BF03194059S.

A. Aziz and A. Hossain, A comparison of cooperative learning and conventional teaching on students' achievement in secondary mathematics, Procedia Social and Behavioural Sciences, 9 (2010), 53-62. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.12.115

A. Bandura, Self-efficacy: The exercise of control, New York: W.H. Freeman (1997).

A. Ebrahim, The effect of cooperative learning strategies on elementary students' science achievement and social skills in Kuwait, International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 10(2) (2012), 293-314. doi:10.1007/s10763-011-9293-0

J. Friedel, S. K. J. Cortina, C. Turner and C. Midgley, Achievement goals, efficacy beliefs and coping strategies in mathematics: The roles of perceived parent and teacher goal emphases, Contemporary Educational Psychology, 32(3) (2007), 434-458. doi:10.1016/j.cedpsych.2006.10.009

M. Gupta, M. Jain, and P. Pasrija, Gender Related Effects of Co-Operative Learning Strategies (STAD and TAI) on Mathematics Achievement, Issues and Ideas in Education, 2(1) (2014), 53–68. doi:10.15415/iie.2014.21005

M. Hanze, and R. Berger, Cooperative learning, motivational effects, and student characteristics: An experimental study comparing cooperative learning and direct instruction in 12th grade physics classes, Learning and Instruction, 17 (2007), 29-41. doi:10.1016/j.learninstruc.2006.11.004

A. Hossain, and R. A. Tarmizi, Effects of cooperative learning on students' achievement and attitudes in secondary mathematics, Procedia Social and Behavioural Sciences, 93 (2013), 473 – 477. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.09.222

D. W. Johnson, R. T. Johnson and M. E. Stanne (2000), Cooperative learning methods: A meta-analysis, Retrieved from

D. W. Johnson and R. T. Johnson, Learning mathematics and cooperative learning lesson plans for teacher. Edina, Minnesota: Interaction (1991).

D. W. Johnson and R. T. Johnson. Learning together and alone: cooperation, competition, and individualization (5th Ed.), Boston: Allyn & Bacon (1999).

D. W. Johnson and R. T. Johnson, Cooperation and competition (2nd Ed.), Edina, Minnesota: Interaction (1989).

M. R. Keramati, A. HeydariRafat, A. Hedayati, A. EnayatiFar, The impact of cooperative learning on student's science academic achievement, and test anxiety, Journal of educational innovation, 11(44) (2013), 83-98.

E. Kolawole, Effects of competitive and cooperative learning strategies on academic performance of Nigerian students in mathematics, Educational Research and Review, 3 (2008), 33-37. URL:

M. Lavasani, H. Hejazi, and F. Khandan, The effect of cooperative Learning on mathematics anxiety and help seeking behaviour, Journal of Psychology, 15 (2012), 397-411. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.03.085

E. A. Linenbrink, and P. R. Pintrich, Motivation as enabler of academic success, School Psychology Review, 31(3) (2002), 313-327.

J. S. Mari, and A. G. Sani, Effects of Jigsaw Model of Cooperative Learning on Self-Efficacy and Achievement in Chemistry among Concrete and Formal Reasoners in Colleges of Education in Nigeria, International Journal of Information and Education Technology 5(3) (2015), 196-199. doi:10.7763/IJIET.2015.V5.501

D. May, Mathematics self-efficacy and anxiety questionnaire, (Doctoral dissertation), University of Georgia (2009).

D. Oludipe, J. O. Awokoy, Effect of cooperative learning teaching strategy on the reduction of student's anxiety for learning chemistry, Journal of Turkish Science Education 7(1) (2010), 30-36.

F. Pajares, Motivational role of self-efficacy beliefs in self-regulated learning. Motivation and self-regulated learning: Theory, research, and applications, In D. H. Schunk & B. J., 111-139. New York: Lawrence Erlbaum (2008).

P. R. Pintrich, D. A. Mith, T. Garcia, and W. J Mckeachie, A manual for the use of the motivated strategies for learning questionnaire (MSLQ), MI: University of Michigan (1991).

P. R. Pintrich, E. V. De Groot, Motivational and self-regulated learning components of classroom academic performance, Journal of Educational Psychology, 82(1) (1990), 33-40. doi:10.1037/0022-0663.82.1.33

P. S. L. Queenie, W. Y. C. Joanne, C. Chi, and K. S. Thomas, Enhancement of self-efficacy and interest in learning English of undergraduate students with low English proficiency through a collaborative learning programme, American Journal of Educational Research, 3(10) (2015). 1284-1290. doi: 10.12691/education-3-10-12

F. C. Richardson, and R. M. Suinn, The Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale, Journal of Counseling Psychology 19 (1972), 551-554. doi:10.1037/h0033456

J. Robertson, Self-efficacy and Collaborative Learning: An Intervention Study, (Doctoral dissertation), University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (2012).

R. Slavin, Cooperative Learning and the cooperative school. Educational Leadership, 45(3) (1987), 7-13.

R. E. Slavin, Cooperative learning, Boston: Allyn & Bacon (1990).

R. E. Slavin, Cooperative learning: Theory, research and practice (2nd Ed.), Boston: Allyn & Bacon (1995).

R. E. Slavin, and N. L. Karweit, Effects of whole class, ability grouped and individualised instruction on mathematics achievement, American Educational Research Journal, 22(3) (1985), 351–367. doi :10.3102/00028312022003351

K. Tarim, The effects of cooperative learning on pre-schoolers' mathematics problem solving ability, Educational Studies in Mathematics, 71 (2009), 325–340. doi:10.1007/s10649-009-9197-x

K. Tarim, and F. Akdeniz, The effects of cooperative learning on Turkish elementary students' mathematics achievement and attitude towards mathematics using TAI and STAD methods, Educational Studies in Mathematics, 67(1) (2008), 77–91. doi:10.1007/s10649-007-9088-y

V. D. Tran, The effects of cooperative learning on the academic achievement and knowledge retention, International journal of higher education, 3(2) (2014), 131-140. doi:10.5430/ijhe.v3n2p131

E. Zakaria, and Z. Iksan, Promoting cooperative learning in science and mathematics education: A Malaysian perspective, Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science & Technology Education, 3(1) (2007), 35–39.

E. Zakaria, L. C. Chin and M. Y. Daud, The effects of cooperative learning on students' mathematics achievement and attitude to-wards mathematics, Journal of Social Sciences, 6 (2010), 272-275. doi:10.3844/jssp.2010.272.275

E. Zakaria, T. Solfitri, Y. Daud, and z. Abidin, Effect of Cooperative Learning on Secondary School Students' Mathematics Achievement, Creative Education, 4(2) (2013), 98-100. doi:10.4236/ce.2013.42014




How to Cite

Sadeghi, V., Shahvarani, A., & Behzadi, M. H. (2021). The Effects of Cooperative Learning on Students’ Mathematics Achievement, Mathematics Self-Efficacy and Mathematics Anxiety in High School Mathematics. Journal of Informatics and Mathematical Sciences, 13(3), 129–141.



Research Articles